Building a database about extremophile, their genomic and proteomic information are attractive subjects of research in industrial, astrobiological as well as evolutionary studies. It is a budding area where large data are being generated regularly. They are industrially important due to their robustness at extreme conditions. High shelf life and resistance to denaturation, requiring no cofactors for their catalysis makes such proteins desirable. The database can be browsed for such classes of proteins for gaining an insight into their various functional and biotechnological applications.
The main objective of creating Extremophile Protein Database (ExProtDB) is to enable researchers gain access to the information on extremophiles belonging to Thermophiles, Psychrophiles, Alkaliphiles, Acidophiles, Barophiles and Halophiles and their proteins that have been manually curated and made available. Various tools, literatures, patents, statistics, interesting facts, latest updates and useful links pertaining to extremophiles are also amalgamated. Therefore, this database would further allow researchers worldwide to carry out research at ease as the entire data on extremophiles would be made available at the click of a button without the need to look for the same at multiple places.
1) The discovery of extremophiles, beginning in the 1970s and have major influences on microbiology and biotechnology industry (Cavicchioli et al. 2011).
2) Scientists believe that the upper limit for life comes around 160 ° C (Hanslmeier 2013).
3)Thermophilic bacteria (Thermus aquaticus) were first discovered in 1960 by Tom Brock from Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, USA (Brock 1998).
4) Most heat resistant microbe is Pyrolobus fumarii which grows in the walls of smokers (Stetter 1999).
5) Polaromonas vacuolata has an ideal growth temperature of just slightly above the freezing point of water (Russell et al. 2003).
6) Salt-loving or halophilic bacteria grow in environments where the sodium concentration is extremely high, such as in the Dead Sea (Asia) and Great Salt Lake (USA).
7) Halophilic bacteria such as Halobacterium salinarum content with the sodium discrepancy by increasing the internal concentration of potassium chloride (Tenchov et al. 2006).
8) Thriving populations of acid-loving bacteria have been isolated in the runoff from acidic mine drainage, where the pH is below one, which is more acidic than the contents of the stomach (Mendez-Garcia et al. 2015).
9) Ferroplasma are the bacteria found growing at pH 0 in acid mine drainage in Iron Mountain, California (Dopson et al. 2004).
10) Alkaliphilic bacteria compensate for reversal of the pH gradient by having a high membrane potential or by coupling Na+ expulsion to electron transport for pH homeostasis and energy transduction (Preiss et al. 2015).
11) Pyrococcus yayanosii is the most pressure resistant microorganism which can survive up to 150 MPa (Zeng et al. 2009).
12) Extremophilic proteins or enzymes have many industrial applications. For example, proteases, lipases, pullulanases, cellulases, amylases, etc. are used as detergent additives that operate better at thermal and alkaline pHs (Sarmiento et al. 2015).
13) Extremophiles have existed on the Earth for some 3.8 Gyr and their interrogation indicates their strategic survival methods which can be associated and compared with extraterrestrial scenarios on Mars, Titan, Enceladus and Europa (Jehlicka and Edwards 2014).